COMPARISON AND CONTRAST ESSAY

ANIMAL CELL AND PLANT CELL

Cells are the structural and functional units of all living organisms. Each cell is an amazing world unto itself: it can take in nutrients, convert these nutrients into energy, carry out specialized functions, and reproduce as necessary. Even more amazing is that each cell stores its own set of instructions for carrying out each of these activities. Some organisms, such as bacteria, are unicellular, consisting of a single cell. Other organisms, such as humans, are multicellular, or have many cells. Cells may have different qualities according to the  organisms that they form and according to tissue types of the species. There are some similarities and differences between plant cell and animal cell in terms of their shapes, the organelles that they have, the features of the organelles that are present in both of them and carbonhydrate storage styles.

Animal cells do not have chloroplasts (essential for photosynthesis), plastids, and cell wall. When put in hypotonic atmosphere, animal cell absorb water. Then because of the absence of cell wall, water explodes the cell. Animal cells have cytoplasm, endoplasmic reticulum, ribosomes, mitochondria, centrosome, golgi apparatus, cell membrane, microtubules, lysosomes, nucleus and nucleolus. An animal cell also have vacuoles, but vacuoles in animal cell are small in size and big in number. In an animal cell, carbonhydrate (of which building structure is glucose) storage material is glycogen. Animal cells have round and irregular shapes.

Plant cells have chloroplasts because they make their own food. Unlike animal cells, they also have plastids and cell wall. As they have cell wall, they do not explode in hypotonic atmosphere. As well as animal cells, plant cells have cytoplasm, endoplasmic reticulum, ribosomes, mitochondria, golgi apparatus, cell membrane, microtubules, nucleus, nucleolus and vacuoles. The number and size of vacuoles in plant cell are smaller when compared to those of plant cell. Plant cells lack some organelles which are present in animal cells: centrosome and lysosome. Centrosome produces centrioles in animal cells. In plant cells, centrioles are produced by another structure instead of centrosome and are present only in some lower plant forms. Starch is the carbonhydrate storage material of plant cells. Plant cells are in rectangular, fixed shape unlike animal cells.

Both plant and animal cells are eukaryotic cells, they have complex structures but the structures of both types of cells have major differences. Their shapes are different from each other. There are some organelles that are present in only plant or only animal cells. There are also organelles which are shared by both animal and plant cells, but their structure are different in each type of cell. As a last difference, carbonhydrate is stored as glycogen in an animal cell while in a plant cell it is stored as starch.

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